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Thread: How to Build up your Linux Server

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Nov 2005

    How to Build up your Linux Server

    Linux is an excellent server for professionals but is still relatively little used by individuals, except for fans, considered too difficult to take in hand. This belief was valid a few years ago but not today. In particular, there are two schools. Those who have always been the operating system from Microsoft, Windows, and accustomed to their environment do not want to change, sometimes even for a newer version. And then there are those who have never used a computer. This is probably the latter who are most likely to use Linux because they do not anyway the difference between an operating system and another.

    Besides these two categories there are of course the fans I will not speak here as they are able to explain why Windows or Linux is more suited to their needs. Thus propose a machine driven by a Linux distribution to a customer who has never touched the computer should be easy. With some distributions, I am thinking of (K) Ubuntu, their approach to IT, without necessarily be easy, should take place as smoothly as if you offer Windows: just train them. In contrast, train someone who already has his habits may be more complicated.

    Linux is often associated with reason, however, at the command line. Again, systems like Ubuntu or Fedora can significantly reduce the use of the command line, dreaded by beginners. Finally, there are actually very few cases involving command line is needed. However, Linux is still problematic in some respects repulsive for advanced users accustomed to Windows. The second problem is the hardware compatibility. Again, this is not really the operating system that is in question but the manufacturers who are still sometimes reluctant to provide drivers for Linux. I do not criticize the open source community so far: their work on the material is exemplary. Still, certain materials pose many problems to the point of not being able to use his machine.

    I think particularly if the Asus P5Q motherboard. The equipment that the team does not yet have, to my knowledge, pilots. Upon installation, the network chipset is not recognized, nor is the SATA controller. For some, like me, you use a minimal installation CD that requires a connection to the Internet, it becomes impossible to install his system. Yes, there is a solution: put a more widespread network card during installation.

    Basic Services

    Ubuntu is probably the best choice for a beginner. Indeed, Ubuntu is Debian based (see one of the most popular distributions for the development server) has been revised to be more accessible to beginners and also more friendly for its desktop version. Have look on some of the basic services.

    Network File System - (NFS for network file system), which allows you to export a number of directories to the network. The / home directory server is installed and the start of each station, which allows each user to retrieve his files, his work environment customized to their preferences, mail, short of all its data in a safe and confidential .

    NIS - Network information service, allows everyone to log on with his name and password from any station, so that only the server knows about that user.

    Print - The printing is done from a server by running cons on each station and not centrally, thus allowing everyone to remove his own spots print side without moving or opening a remote session on the server ( this choice has horrendous problems encountered with the original configuration of the server network with Windows NT). It was particularly difficult to set up printing because of the network card present in our printer.

    E-mail server - This software uses the free sendmail, like 80% of email servers worldwide. Configuration files that I provided allowed to have an internal mail to high school, and a functionality that automatically remove any message for a user outside our local network by rewriting the address of the sender to make it compatible with the area This configuration allows full compatibility with the addresses and does not provide valid email address on the Internet to students, which is strongly recommended by the Ministry of Education.

    Email - The email from the Internet for users on our LAN is returned periodically, automatically by the software fetchmail. Only teachers are affected by this feature.

    Account - Creating accounts conventionally used the directory / etc / skel server, which contains a set of files completely redefined according to our needs. The user interface is presented in the next page.

    Security - No machines have routable addresses on the Internet (all addresses are in class 10 .*), it seemed unnecessary to install a firewall.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Nov 2005

    Re: How to Build up your Linux Server

    How to Start

    Hardware Configuration

    Although we may see ads for servers with several gigabytes of RAM, two or more processors operating at once, and more hard drive than a standard PC, it is also true that many individuals and small businesses buy a computer especially second-hand to a server. How do you explain this difference so important? It is not difficult: all depends on what we want to give to the server. Large companies receive thousands of visits each day to its website, and have to control how they use their network of hundreds of computers that constantly access the printing services, proxy, firewall, email, etc. Instead, our server will not always be in use, and when you have to respond to a connection, serve web pages or run user processes connected hardly reach 100% usage.

    Furthermore, Linux, unlike other widely used operating systems, fully leverages the resources of computers, can run up to 386 with 4 MB of RAM and less than 100 Mb of hard disk. Before installing the operating system we must choose the material that we put into our future server. You may find that any CPU can be installed to a server, all depend on the applications will run.

    The Processor :
    • Intel Pentium (120MHz)
    • Dual Pentium 3 (700MHz)
    • AMD Athlon (tm) (1.2 gHz)
    • Quad Xeon (500MHz)
    • Dual Pentium 3 (500MHz) or higher.

    RAM :

    After the CPU we need the ram. The Ram called normal is that your team pcs default. I would not say that anymore. The ram ECC (Error-correcting code) is the ram with a first type of optimization. It eliminates the errors that could be transmitted. This technique is based on redundancy. Finally the ram ECC REG offers the qualities of ECC memory with further optimization. The memory chips embedding technology REG (Registered) have a very special operation. Indeed in a conventional system is the northbrige which handles all the memory chips. In the case of memory called reg is the PLL chip and the register (any 2 from the strips) that manages memory chips.


    The once all depends on what you want to do. A typical motherboard can quite agree. Some motherboards offer features more or less attractive depending on your need (RAID, SCSI ports, S-ATA port, console redirection over a serial port, LAN, VGA, etc.

    Hard drives

    Hard drives will be the most fragile of our server. Indeed they will turn performance and heat more or less depending on the model and aeration of the case.

    The SCSI discs are the most powerful but also more expensive.. They offer minimal access time, rotate very fast and are noisy. It can offer data rates up to 320MB / s for generations. You can forget this kind of product items unless you have a big budget. Then comes the S-ATA drives. They have the advantage over SCSI disks to be far less expensive and offer less performance penalty. Finally there are the IDE drives that are starting to feel old. If your motherboard does not have SCSI controller or S-ATA and you do not want to invest in such a controller you can keep in FDI. FDI is the system with the least performance but as in most of the time you held back by your network connection, so you will not feel the difference in perspective flow.

    Network Adapter

    If you have a network adapter built into your motherboard's all good. Any 100 see 1000Mbps NIC will do. I personally have some preferences for 3Com and Intel. By cons I do not recommend network connections via USB (USB is for me not to support such a load continuously) and Wi-Fi connections. Regarding the Wi-Fi is not because the material itself but rather because of some compatibility problems. Currently all Wi-Fi cards are not yet supported under Linux. However you can easily opt for an access point which fetches a signal WIFI then forward it to your server via a network card.

    Graphic Card

    Game Server or not the graphics card is the item that will focus on less important. Indeed it will be there only for the installation, debugging (at worst) but will be in console mode.

    Server Setup

    Computers are not all equal, there are different brands and models: some have better hardware than others or not have certain peripheral. As Linux is free software that can be modified and adapted by all, have created many different versions of the operating system, so many that neither can be counted. There are specialized institutions in specific aspects, and there are also targeting the general public. , I think the most appropriate distribution for the institute is Debian, because, besides being free software, is simple and very stable. Distributions is a more apt to make server. Apart from this, is also widely used FreeBSD, a UNIX based system (like Linux).

    The server we use to be the stable, we cannot risk trying an unstable or 'testing' because they may contain bugs and other problems with security. Likewise, we must not forget to update the system quite often. You can install the operating system in many ways, of which the most common are the CDs with images and Internet facility.

    We can install Debian in many ways, of which the most common are the CDs with images and Internet facility. As we do not need more than the basic programs, is more profitable to do the installation over the Internet, because if we had to download a full CD (650 Mb) is not going to take advantage. Also, do not we will need to use a CD burner, but only a few empty diskettes.

    Internet server

    Internet Server includes a number of services such as www, ftp server, ssh access, firewall, netbios, samba, database, vpn server and vpn access, email and much more. The first place we put the safe and uninterrupted operation of services, thus ensuring round the clock access to services.

    Proxy Server

    Proxy Server service in computer networks, allowing clients to indirect requests to other network services. The client first connects to the proxy and requests a resource (e.g. file) located on another server. The proxy then connects to a specified computer and gets his share, or return the resource from its own cache (in cases where a proxy has its own cache). In some cases, a client request or server response can be altered by the proxy server for certain purposes.

    FTP Server

    If you do not have a CD-ROM from Red Hat Linux or do not have a CD-ROM, but has access to a network, an FTP installation is for you. When installing via FTP packages from Red Hat Linux you select are obtained (using FTP) over the network and are installed on your hard drive. When performing an FTP install, you need access to a LAN-based network, a telephone connection via modem will not work. If your Local Area Network (Local Area Network) has Internet access, you can use one of many mirror FTP sites that make Red Hat Linux. If your LAN has no Internet access, all is not lost. If a computer on your LAN to accept anonymous FTP requests, just put a copy of Red Hat Linux distribution in this system and are ready to go.

    Direct access to FTP-sites allows users to work with the stored on the FTP server files and folders as well as with files and folders of your computer. Files and folders can browse, download, transfer, rename, delete. If to perform all these operations required to obtain permission, you will be asked your user name and password.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Nov 2005

    Re: How to Build up your Linux Server

    HTTP server

    To install via HTTP, you must use specific boot disk for network installation, and a floppy with PCMCIA support if you are using a PCMCIA device during installation. You need to have configured a valid name server or IP address must specify the HTTP server to be used. Also need to know the path or directory path in Red Hat Linux HTTP server.

    NFS server

    To install via NFS, you must mount the CD-ROM from Red Hat Linux on a computer that supports the file system ISO-9660 with Rock Ridge extensions. The machine must also support NFS. Export the file system of CD-ROM via NFS. You need to have configured a valid name server or IP address shall specify the NFS server to be used. Also need to know the path or way of CD-ROM exported. Your NFS server must support long file names. To install by NFS, you only need a boot disk.

    Hard drive Setup

    The method of hard disk installation requires some upfront effort on your part, it must copy all necessary files in one partition before starting the installation program from Red Hat Linux. First, create a Fedora directory in the root directory of your tree. All that is to be installed should be placed in that directory. Then copy the ISO images of CD's in that directory. The installation system will take care of access packages once we have indicated the path to the files of Fedora.

    Steps to Setup Server

    Boot Disk

    Where it is possible to boot your machine directly from the CD-ROM, and whatever be the chosen method (ftp, nfs, http, cd-rom) for installation, we create for ourselves a boot floppy image file. An image file is a file that contains an exact copy (or image) the contents of a floppy disk. Since a diskette contains file system information, other than information contained in the files, the image file cannot be used until you write to a diskette. To do this, you will need a 3.5 inch high density (1.44 MB), and a computer with floppy suited to this format, able to run a DOS program or the dd utility, which can be found in most Operating Systems Linux style.

    You can find the image files in the following directories on your Red Hat Linux CD. Assuming that the CD-ROM is in drive E: under DOS, will have access to the directory E: \ images. Once you have selected the appropriate image file, it is time to transfer it to a floppy disk. This can be done in a DOS, or a system that is running a Linux-like operating system. To make a diskette under MS-DOS, use the utility rawrite we included in Red Hat Linux CD in the directory dosutils. First, label a floppy disk formatted with the appropriate name. Insert it into the floppy drive, and use the following commands on your computer. We assume that your CD drive is E:
    E:> cd dosutils
    E:> rawrite
    Enter disk image source file name: .. \ images \ boot.img
    Enter target diskette drive: a:
    Please insert a formatted diskette Into drive A: and press ENTER
    rawrite asked first by the image file name. Enter the full name, including directory, the file you want to write to the disk, for example: .. \ images \ boot.img. Then rawrite question the floppy drive where the image file transfer. Finally, rawrite asked to confirm that there is a formatted floppy disk into the drive selected. Once you press Enter to confirm, rawrite copy the image file to the floppy. If you need to make another diskette, label it and use rawrite again, indicating the plain, unformatted appropriate image.
    To prepare an installation disk under Linux or another operating system of their own kind, requires written permission for the device associated with a 3.5 floppy drive (/ dev/fd0 under Linux). First label and a formatted floppy disk blank as appropriate (e.g. boot disk, extra hard, etc.). Insert it into the floppy drive, but do not use the mount command with him. When you have mounted the CD, change directory containing the desired image file and use the following command on your computer.

    Boot from CD and check the preferences of your motherboard bios and scsi card. If that fails, check that your SCSI BIOS is current. If this does not work, you create a boot disk.

    Then create a boot disk - \ Dosutils \ rawrite.exe Dos is a program that lets you create a boot disk.

    The image is the location: \ images \ en \ boot.img
    To create the image, open a shell back.
    Example with the CDROM drive is located on the letter K:
    k: \ dosutils> RAWRITE-f \ images \ en \ boot.img-d A:

    Follow the instructions step by step. When you choose a screen resolution you must make a test. To partition the hard drive, I suggest you let the installer choose the parameters . If you start from a blank disc and you want a DOS / Linux, shorten one of the partitions (do not touch on / root or / swap), and create a FAT32 partition.

    On Linux, there's a director who has all the credentials: root. And an unlimited quantity of users and groups. You will choose a password for root, and create the first user (or create later).

    Select Installation Type Choose a custom installation. If you opt for a standard configuration, Red Hat will install all packages. What we do not want because we want to set ourselves the most layers, in order to control the installation paths and execution. Moreover, the risk of being simultaneously with different version of the same layers.

    You can choose between KDE and Gnome. Each of these environments has its own web browser, its plain text editor, the editor changed (as Microsoft Word), a spreadsheet, etc.. If you're curious, install both. At each login, you can choose your environment. I advise you to work under KDE.


    It is strongly recommended that prior to partition a hard disk that contains other partitions (other operating systems) can make a backup of important data. The basic utility of any GNU / Linux used to partition disks are called fdisk. But Fedora Linux 9 in installation process uses a more user-friendly program called Disk Druid. With Disk Druid can add new partitions (Add), edit an existing partition (Edit), delete an existing partition (Delete), or reset the partition to its original state (Reset).

    There is one area that Linux neophytes are complicated and it is the way the Linux operating system access and use the partitions. In DOS / Windows, it is relatively easy. If you have more than one partition, each gets a drive letter ``.'' We will use the drive letter to refer to files or directories on a given partition.

    This is completely different from how Linux handles partitions, and effects, the disk storage in general. The main difference is that each partition fits into the storage system needed to be part of a single set of files and directories. This is achieved by associating a partition with a directory through a process known as editing. Mounting a partition means having storage capacity starting at the specified directory (known as mount point).
    At this point the process of preparing to install Fedora Linux, need to consider the number and size of the partitions to use its new operating system. It is recommended, unless you have a reason not to, create the following partitions as a minimum. A swap partition (swap). The swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. If your computer has 16 MB of RAM or less, you should create a partition for the swap. Even having enough memory is still recommended to have a swap partition. The minimum size should be equal to the RAM on your computer.

    The root partition and root partition. The root partition is where / (the root). In the profile of partitions, all files (except those housed in / boot) are on the root partition. Therefore interested in maximizing the size of the root partition. A root partition of 1500 MB will provide the equivalent of a workstation-class installation (with very little free space, while a 4 GB root partition will let you install all packages. Anyway, you can create a partition structure to suit different functions that make our server. Not a bad idea to put the / tmp and / home on separate partitions of the root partition, because if users will access the server, this division will prevent these can fill any critical system files. Not a bad idea to put / var and / usr on separate partitions, for the same reasons given above.


    Component packages grouped by the functionality they provide. For example, Development C [C Development] Workstation Network [Networked Workstation], or Web Server [Web Server]. Select each component you want to install and press Space. Selecting Everything [Everything] (can be found at the end of the component list) installs all the packages in Red Hat Linux. If you select all packages, will need about 1GB of free disk space.
    After selecting the components to install, you may want to select or deselect individual packages. The installation program lists the available package groups, using arrow keys, select a group to review, and press Enter or Space. The installation program presents a list of packages from that group, you must select or deselect by using the arrow keys to highlight a package and pressing Space. Some packages (such as the kernel and certain libraries) are needed in every Red Hat Linux and are not available to be selected or deselected.

    Many software packages to work correctly depend on other software packages, or libraries to be installed on your system. For example, many graphical tools for system administration required Red Hat packages and python. To ensure that your system has all the packages that need to be fully functional, Red Hat Linux checks these package dependencies each time you install or remove software packages. After you have finished selecting packages to install, the installer checks the dependencies list of selected packages. If any package requires another package that you chose not to install, the program presents a list of these unresolved dependencies and gives you the opportunity to resolve them. If you simply press [OK], the program automatically resolved by adding all the required packages through the list of selected packages.

    Zentyal 2.0: Linux Server Distro

    The development team is proud to present Zentyal 2.0. Formerly known as the Ebox-Platform, Zentyal is a Linux server for small businesses that can serve as a gateway, firewall, groupware, proxy, network manager, or combination of all these possibilities. Zentyal development began in 2004 and continuously since becoming a company that offers the integration of Linux server solution in over thirty projects of open source network management.

    Linux Server Software’s

    Samba is an open source implementation of file system used in the Linux server and has the advantage that can be used to share files and printers with PCs running Microsoft Windows, besides having a remarkable compatibility with Microsoft Active Directory for authentication users.
    The best performance of Samba on Linux server machines means they can use lower cost than alternatives, allowing reducing the necessary investment in new hardware. With only the cost of Windows server licenses you can purchase the hardware needed to mount a machine with a Linux server, Samba and open source environment. Samba is available free of charge and there are versions for commercial versions of UNIX, including IBM AIX, HP-UX and Solaris. Also available for various versions of Linux servers, Novell Netware, and VMS.

    More Linux Server Distro’s:
    • Cygwin
    • Fedora
    • Centos
    • Gentoo
    • Gentoo Portage
    • Kanotix
    • Knoppicillin
    • Mandriva
    • Linux Mint
    • SuSE Linux
    • XLiveCD

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