This is a built-in function in many Cisco switches (the command on IOS-equipped Cisco switches is "ip dhcp snooping", and on the ports connected to trusted DHCP servers, "ip dhcp snooping trust" and so on). DHCP responses from untrusted servers (or, rather, DHCP responses received on switch ports that don't have "ip dhcp snooping trust" enabled) are dropped.
There are other tools available that will pick up DHCP servers. Fluke Network's OptiView Console software will do it but it can be quite costly. The free network scanning tool nmap will also, I'm pretty sure, pick up DHCP servers.
Off the top of my head I don't know of any tools that will then take that information and automatically shut down the switch port - even the Cisco DHCP snooping command will only drop the packets, not the connection.
You could knock up a script in Perl or Python to do it (take the output from nmap, parse it to see if it has picked up and DHCP servers, get the MAC address for the unwanted server, compare it to your switch's bridge forwarding tables using SNMP to get the port, then use SNMP again to shut the port down). It's not an impossible job, although if you haven't used SNMP before, it can be a bit daunting. It might be safer to just have a script that regularly runs nmap and sends an email to you if it finds an unwanted DHCP server.
Or, you could look at the problem another way. I'm not a Windows expert but I'd be surprised if there wasn't a way, through policies, SMS etc, to disable the DHCP Server service entirely. If your developers complain that they need full and complete access to all potential services on their PCs to do their job (which, to be fair, some developers may well do) then I'd lobby hard to get the funds to build them a private development network. They can then do whatever the hell they want on that, while allowing you to keep the main office network working.
Another thought; I think you can get at the list of running services on a remote box using WMI. Have a look at www.sysinternals.com
and, in particular, the PSTools suite. I'm pretty sure there's enough in that suite of tools alone to allow you to find out if a given machine is running a DHCP server service and then to kill that process (provided you've got appropriate rights).