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  #1  
Old 02-02-2009
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Difference between TCP/IP and OSI

Hi.........
can anybody please help me in finding what is the difference between TCP/IP and OSI in networking areas....I only know that TCP/IP means transmission control protocol and OSI means open system interconnection but i dont know the proper difference between TCP/IP and OSI...........

provide some reviews on it......
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  #2  
Old 02-02-2009
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Re: Difference between TCP/IP and OSI

Internet Protocol Suite:

The Internet Protocol Suite also known as TCP/IP is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks), which emerged in the mid- to late-1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in early 1990s.

The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted.

The TCP/IP model consists of four layers (RFC 1122). From lowest to highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer.
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  #3  
Old 02-02-2009
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Re: Difference between TCP/IP and OSI

OSI model:

The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model also known to be OSI Reference Model or OSI Model is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. It was developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. In its most basic form, it divides network architecture into seven layers which, from top to bottom, are the Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers. It is therefore often referred to as the OSI Seven Layer Model.

A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives service from the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path.

All aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the CYCLADES network, which also influenced Internet design. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. In this model, a networking system is divided into layers. Within each layer, one or more entities implement its functionality. Each entity interacts directly only with the layer immediately beneath it, and provides facilities for use by the layer above it.

Protocols enable an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. Service definitions abstractly describe the functionality provided to an ( N)-layer by an (N-1) layer, where N is one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host.
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  #4  
Old 02-02-2009
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Re: Difference between TCP/IP and OSI

Layers in the TCP/IP Suite:

The TCP/IP suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services. Such encapsulation usually is aligned with the division of the protocol suite into layers of general functionality. In general, an application (the highest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to send its data down the layers, being further encapsulated at each level.

This may be illustrated by an example network scenario, in which two Internet host computers communicate across local network boundaries constituted by their internetworking gateways (routers).

The functional groups of protocols and methods are the Application Layer, the Transport Layer, the Internet Layer, and the Link Layer (RFC 1122). It should be noted that this model was not intended to be a rigid reference model into which new protocols have to fit in order to be accepted as a standard.
  • Application Layer:

    DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP,SMPP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, Echo, RTP, PNRP, rlogin, ENRP
    Routing protocols like BGP and RIP which run over TCP/UDP, may also be considered part of the Internet Layer.
  • Transport Layer:

    TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP, RSVP
  • Internet Layer:

    IP (IPv4, IPv6) ICMP, IGMP, and ICMPv6
    OSPF for IPv4 was initially considered IP layer protocol since it runs per IP-subnet, but has been placed on the Link since RFC 2740.
  • Link Layer:

    ARP, RARP, OSPF (IPv4/IPv6), IS-IS, NDP

Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding whether the Link Layer and the four-layer TCP/IP model covers physical layer issues or a hardware layer is assumed below the link layer. Some authors have tried to use other names for the link layer, such as Network interface layer, in effort to avoid confusion with the Data link layer of the seven-layer OSI model. Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto the seven-layer OSI Model. The mapping often results in a five-layer TCP/IP model, wherein the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer. Especially in literature with a bottom-up approach to computer networking, where physical layer issues are emphasized, an evolution towards a five-layer Internet model can be observed out of pedagogical reasons.

The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped to the OSI's Network Layer. At the top of the hierarchy, the Transport Layer is always mapped directly into OSI Layer 4 of the same name. OSIs Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and Session Layer are collapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. As a result, these efforts result in either a four- or five-layer scheme with a variety of layer names. This has caused considerable confusion in the application of these models. Other authors dispense with rigid pedagogy[17] focusing instead on functionality and behavior.

The Internet protocol stack has never been altered by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) from the four layers defined in RFC 1122. The IETF makes no effort to follow the seven-layer OSI model and does not refer to it in standards-track protocol specifications and other architectural documents. The IETF has repeatedly stated that Internet protocol and architecture development is not intended to be OSI-compliant.
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  #5  
Old 02-02-2009
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Re: Difference between TCP/IP and OSI

Description of OSI layers:

Layer 1: Physical Layer:

The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a physical medium. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, Hubs, repeaters, network adapters, Host Bus Adapters (HBAs used in Storage Area Networks) and more.

To understand the function of the Physical Layer in contrast to the functions of the Data Link Layer, think of the Physical Layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single device with a medium, where the Data Link Layer is concerned more with the interactions of multiple devices (i.e., at least two) with a shared medium. The Physical Layer will tell one device how to transmit to the medium, and another device how to receive from it (in most cases it does not tell the device how to connect to the medium). Standards such as RS-232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer:

The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. Local area network architecture, which included broadcast-capable multiaccess media, was developed independently of the ISO work, in IEEE Project 802. IEEE work assumed sublayering and management functions not required for WAN use. In modern practice, only error detection, not flow control using sliding window, is present in modern data link protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and, on local area networks, the IEEE 802.2 LLC layer is not used for most protocols on Ethernet, and, on other local area networks, its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the Transport Layer by protocols such as TCP, but is still used in niches where X.25 offers performance advantages.

WAN Protocol architecture:

Connection-oriented WAN data link protocols, in addition to framing, detect and may correct errors. They also are capable of controlling the rate of transmission. A WAN Data Link Layer might implement a sliding window flow control and acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames; that is the case for SDLC and HDLC, and derivatives of HDLC such as LAPB and LAPD.

IEEE 802 LAN architecture:

Practical, connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE Ethernet specification, which is the ancestor of IEEE 802.3. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium, which is the function of a Media Access Control sublayer. Above this MAC sublayer is the media-independent IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer, which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multi access media.

Layer 3: Network Layer:

The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks, while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer. The Network Layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is hierarchical.

The best-known example of a Layer 3 protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time, from end system to ingress router, router to router, and from egress router to destination end system. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop, but only for the detection of errored packets so they may be discarded. When the medium of the next hop cannot accept a packet in its current length, IP is responsible for fragmenting the packet into sufficiently small packets that the medium can accept.

Layer 4: Transport Layer:

The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control. Some protocols are state and connection oriented. This means that the Transport Layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail.

Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the Transport Layer, the best known examples of a Layer 4 protocol are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).[citation needed]

Layer 5: Session Layer:

The Session Layer controls the dialogues/connections (sessions) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for "graceful close" of sessions, which is a property of TCP, and also for session checkpointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls (RPCs).

Layer 6: Presentation Layer:

The Presentation Layer establishes a context between Application Layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities can use different syntax and semantics, as long as the Presentation Service understands both and the mapping between them. The presentation service data units are then encapsulated into Session Protocol Data Units, and moved down the stack.

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.

Layer 7: Application Layer:

The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. When identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When determining resource availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested communication exist. In synchronizing communication, all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer. Some examples of application layer implementations include Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) , and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
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  #6  
Old 02-02-2009
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Re: Difference between TCP/IP and OSI

General Comparison with TCP/IP:

In the TCP/IP model of the Internet, protocols are deliberately not as rigidly designed into strict layers as the OSI model.[6] RFC 3439 contains a section entitled "Layering considered harmful." However, TCP/IP does recognize four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols, namely the scope of the software application, the end-to-end transport connection, the internetworking range, and lastly the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network.

Even though the concept is different than in OSI, these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet Application Layer includes the OSI Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and most of the Session Layer. Its end-to-end Transport Layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI Session Layer as well as the OSI Transport Layer. The internetworking layer (Internet Layer) is a subset of the OSI Network Layer, while the Link Layer includes the OSI Data Link and Physical Layers, as well as parts of OSI's Network Layer. These comparisons are based on the original seven-layer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498, rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the Network Layer document.

The presumably strict consumer/producer layering of OSI as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP, as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e.g., OSPF), or in the description of tunneling protocols, which provide a Link Layer for an application, although the tunnel host protocol may well be a Transport or even an Application Layer protocol in its own right.

The TCP/IP design generally favors decisions based on simplicity, efficiency and ease of implementation.
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